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A Track Record of Proposals to Allow Dual Nationality in Chinese “Two Sessions” 中国两会关于允许双重国籍的提案全记录

Updated: Mar 25

The "two sessions" ("lianghui"), namely the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), are one of the most significant political scenes in China. Although many pointed out that the NPC is largely a rubberstamp and the CPPCC is only advisory in nature, they still play considerable politically symbolic functions at least. This post combs the track record of proposals by members of the two sessions to abolish the prohibition of dual nationality in recent years. Chinese law still has not recognize dual nationality till this day.


“两会”,即全国人民代表大会(全国人大)和中国人民政治协商会议(政协会议)是中国最重要的政治图景之一。尽管许多观点指出全国人大很大程度上是橡皮图章,而政协会议仅为咨询性质,两会至少有巨大的政治象征意义。本文梳理近年来两会代表提出的关于允许双重国籍、废除禁止双重国籍条款的提案。


In summary, there have been 5 proposals in the NPC and CPPCC from 1999 to 2021 to lift the ban on recognition of dual nationality, but the law has remained unchanged.


在1999至2021年间,共有7个全国人大和全国政协提案建议废除不承认双重国籍的规定,但中国法律至今没有修改,仍不承认双重国籍。


1. The 1999 Proposal in the CPPCC


In 1999, 12 members of the CPPCC, including the famous TV host Chen Duo, jointly proposed to revoke the non-recognition of dual nationality. The Ministry of Public Security responded that China’s policy of non-recognition of dual nationality “played an important role in handling the issue of conflicts of nationality and conformed to China’s national conditions and national interests.”


(Source: Wu Xiaoan, Forgotten History and Abruptly Changing Facts: Dispute on the Dual Nationality Issue of Overseas People with Chinese Descent, in Zhou Nanjing (ed.), Discussion of the Nationality Issue of Overseas People with Chinese Descent (2005), at 64-65, 175-78)


1. 1999年政协提案


1999年,包括著名电视主持人陈铎在内的12名全国政协委员即联名提案,要求撤销不承认双重国籍的规定。公安部当时回应说,中国不承认双重国籍的政策“在处理国籍冲突问题上,发挥了重要作用,符合中国国情和国家利益。”


(来源:见吴小安,遗忘的历史与剧变的现实:中国海外华人双重国籍问题的争论,载周南京主编《境外华人国籍问题讨论辑》(2005),第64-65,175-78页)


2. The two 2004 Proposals in the CPPCC


In 2004, at the Second Session of the Tenth National Committee of the CPPCC, Huang Yinhui put forward a proposal titled "Recommendation to Amend the Relevant Articles of the Nationality Law to Recognize Dual Nationality Selectively and Reciprocally" (Political & Law No. 019, Proposal No. 0222). He recommended to amend Articles 3, 5, and 9 of the Nationality Law so that Chinese citizens who have acquired foreign nationality can choose to retain or renounce their Chinese nationality. In its response to the proposal, the Ministry of Public Security stated that "amendment and improvement of the Nationality Law are included in the Ministry's Tenth Five-Year Legislative Plan, and the relevant work is now stepping up."


In the same year, Han Fangming submitted a proposal titled "Recommendation on Flexible Handling of Nationality Issues and Promoting Overseas Students in Service of the Country" (Political & Law No. 31, Proposal No. 0320). His recommendation is to adopt an intermediate approach between the dichotomy of recognition and non-recognition of dual nationality, including convenient entry and exit visas, Chinese permanent residence (green cards), and the issuance of "Chinese Citizens (Overseas) Passport" to overseas students who have joined foreign nationality, which can only used as a "travel documents" to return to the mainland China.


(Source: Zhou Nanjing (ed.), Discussion of the Nationality Issue of Overseas People with Chinese Descent (2005), at 241-52.)


2. 2004年的两个政协提案


2004年, 在全国政协十届二次会议上,全国政协委员黄因慧又提出了“关于建议修改《中华人民共和国国籍法》相关条款 ,有选择对应承认双重国籍的建议”(政治法律第019号,提案第 0222 号) ,建议修改国籍法第 3、 5、9 条款 ,使取得他国国籍的中国公民可以自愿保留或放弃中国国籍。公安部在提案答复中说明“修改和完善《国籍法》列入公安部‘十五’立法规划 ,现正抓紧进行有关工作。”


同年,全国政协委员韩方明提出了“关于弹性处理国籍问题,促进海外留学人员为国服务的建议案”(政治法律第31号,提案第0320号)。其中建议在承认与不承认双重国籍间采取中间状态,包括便利的出入境签证,永久居留绿卡,以及向加入外国籍的海外留学人员颁发《中国公民(海外)护照》,仅作为返乡的“旅行证件”使用。


(来源:周南京主编《境外华人国籍问题讨论辑》(2005),第241-52页)


3. The 2005 Proposal by the Central Committee of China National Democratic Construction Association in the CPPCC


In 2005, during the third meeting of the Tenth National Committee of the CPPCC, the Central Committee of China Democratic National Construction Association (one of the non-communist "democratic parties" in China) submitted a party proposal to recognize dual nationality, and allow overseas immigrants to get involved in politics and to participate in the People’s Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conferences as citizens. The proposal argued for revision of the Nationality law to recognize dual nationality correspondingly. If immediate amendment turns out difficult, the proposal urged following the examples of Hong Kong and Macau to deal with the issue of Chinese nationality flexibly: to issue a "Chinese with Foreign Nationality Home Return Permits" like the permit for Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan residents, or to issue "Chinese Citizen (Overseas) Passports" as a "travel document" for home-returning residents who have acquired foreign nationality.


3. 2005年的民建中央政协党派提案


2005年的中国人民政治协商会议第十届全国委员会第三次会议中,民建中央提交党派提案,建议我国承认双重国籍,并提出让海外移民涉足政治,以公民身份参加人代会和政协会的设想。此次民建中央建议:应修改《国籍法》,对应承认双重国籍。同时提出,若立即修改《国籍法》有难度,可效仿港澳地区,弹性处理华人国籍问题,“如借鉴针对港澳台同胞的《回乡证》制度,给外籍华人颁发《外籍华人回乡证》,也可参照香港的做法,向加入外国国籍的居民颁发《中国公民(海外)护照》作为返乡‘旅行证件’”。


4. The NPC Member Shen Zhiqiang's Proposal in 2011


Shen Zhiqiang put forward suggestions on amending the Nationality Law as soon as possible. He pointed out that single nationality is contrary to the trend of nationality changes in emerging global developed countries; it severely restricts overseas Chinese returning to China for innovation and entrepreneurship; it is contrary to the win-win trend of international cooperation; the single nationality system is undoubtedly an abdication of the responsibilities and obligations of the national government, which is not conducive to either safeguarding national sovereignty and dignity or protecting the survival and development of overseas Chinese. Therefore, he made the following suggestions: first, to learn from the experience of dual nationality countries around the world to improve the legal system of dual nationality; second, to recognize dual nationality and apply the principle of reciprocity. The liberalization of dual nationality contribute to attracting overseas talents, funds and technologies in today's globalized world, while opposing dual nationality cannot prevent the loss of talents or property. Similarly, by opening up dual nationality, overseas Chinese will gain or no longer lose Chinese nationality. China's centripetal force and attractiveness to overseas Chinese will greatly enhance, and the sense of national identity will rise like never before.


Wu Lang, Shao Huili, Memebr Shen Zhiqiang: Science and Technology Innovation Needs Talent Support, Shandong Lvdu Biotechnology Co., Ltd., May 26, 2011, https://www.lvdu.net/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=18&id=1070.


4. 2011年全国人大代表沈志强提案


沈志强提出了关于尽快修改《国籍法》的建议。他指出,单一国籍制与全球化新兴发达国家国籍变化趋势相悖;严重限制海外华人归国创新创业,与国际合作多赢趋势相悖;单一国籍制无疑是放弃国家政府的责任和义务,既不利于维护国家主权和尊严,也不利于保护海外华人的生存发展。因此,他建议:一、借鉴世界双重国籍国家经验,完善双重国籍法律体系;二、承认双重国籍,可以适用对等原则。双重国籍的放开,有利于在全球化的今天,吸引海外人才、资金、技术;而反对双重国籍,并不能阻止人才或财产的流失。同样,开放双重国籍,海外华人将取得或不再失去中国的国籍,中国对海外华人的向心力和吸引力将大大增强,国家认同感也将得到前所未有的提升。


吴浪,邵慧力:“沈志强代表:科技创新需要人才支撑”,山东绿都生物科技有限公司,2011-05-26,https://www.lvdu.net/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=18&id=1070


5. The 2016 Proposal in the CPPCC by Li Wei


Li Wei, a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Standing Committee and vice-chairman of Guangdong’s Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese, told media outlet Caixin that the Nationality Law provision to automatically revoke the Chinese nationality of those who gain foreign nationality was “out of date” and should be revised.


5. 2016年全国政协李崴提案


全国政协常委会委员及广东省归国华侨联合会副主席李葳向媒体表示,《国籍法》中关于中国公民取得外国国籍时自动丧失中国国籍的规定已经过时,应当加以修改。


6. The 2018 Proposal in the CPPCC


Zhu Zhengfu, a member of the National Committee of the CPPCC and the vice president of the Chinese Lawyers Association, submitted a proposal in 2018 to amend Article 9 of the Nationality Law: if a Chinese citizen does not voluntarily apply for renunciation of Chinese nationality after obtaining foreign nationality, China will only recognize the Chinese nationality instead of the foreign nationality of him. “You cannot equate the acquisition of foreign nationality with being unpatriotic. Many Chinese people acquire foreign nationality not because they have no feelings for the motherland. It may be due to employment needs or other reasons.” Zhu Zhengfu told the Beijing Youth Daily that when the Nationality Law was enacted (in 1980), China's national strength is still relatively weak. Now the situation is different. The world, especially the developed countries in the West, are competing for talents and resources. Nationality has become an important means of the competition. Automatic loss of Chinese nationality upon joining foreign nationality and giving up talents to other countries are not in the long-term interests of China. In addition, amending this provision can also enable China to retain jurisdiction over citizens in terms of justice and taxation.


6. 2018年政协提案


全国政协委员、中华全国律师协会副会长朱征夫于2018年两会提出建议,修改《国籍法》第九条,如果中国公民取得外国国籍之后,不主动申请放弃中国国籍,则中国只承认该公民中国国籍,对其外国国籍不予承认。“不能把取得外国国籍和不爱国划等号,很多中国人取得外国国籍,并非对祖国没有感情,可能是工作需要或者其他原因。”朱征夫告诉北青报记者,这条法律制定的时候,我们的国家实力还比较弱,现在情况不一样了,世界范围内特别是西方发达国家都在争夺人才和资源,国籍已经成为了争夺人才资源的重要手段,自动丧失国籍,把人才让给别家,这并不符合国家的长远利益。此外,修改这条规定,也可以使国家可以保留对公民在司法、税收上面的管辖权。




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